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This paper aims at viewing literature for children in the light of a number of modern translation theories based on interdisciplinariness and multiperspectivism the prototype theory, the polysystem theory, the skopos theory, the corpus-based translation theory and the audiovisual theory.
In terms of translation models, we shall focus upon the analogue models and the functionalist interactive models offering the translators of literature for children equal status with authors, editors or clients and entrusting them to make the most appropriate decisions in the elaborate translation process which involves cross-cultural communication.
Вот эти Банки, это бездонное хранилище информации, полностью определяющее сегодняшний город - оно вокруг. Каждый атом Диаспара давно забытыми нами методами взят на учет в матрицах, замурованных в этих стенах. Жестом руки он указал на безупречное во всех деталях подобие Диаспара, покоящееся перед. - Это не модель, она не существует в действительности. Это лишь проекция образа, хранящегося в Банках Памяти, и, вследствие этого, она абсолютно идентична самому городу.
Unity and translation guidelines are imperiously needed especially since CL is a heterogeneous field ranging from picture books to novels for teenagers, covering various types of discourse and addressing readers of different ages and with various interests and preferences.
Modern translation theories are characterised by interdisciplinariness and multiple perspectives hence they are relevant to our present concern.
Superordinate is the highest level of inclusiveness and abstraction, basic-level is one level below and subordinate is the lowest level of inclusiveness and abstraction e. Following Rosch, Lakoff explains that most of our world knowledge is organised at the basic-level since this is the level at which one uses the shortest description for an object and terms at this level are most commonly used by people.
On the other hand, Vîlceanu 25 considers that the semantics of the prototype is in fact a referential mode much more flexible than the classical model of the necessary and sufficient conditions.
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The superordinate is one level of abstraction above the basic-level and the categories included here share only a few attributes with each other whereas the subordinate is one level of abstraction below the basic-level and its 20 categories share most of their attributes with each other, many of which overlap with other categories.
Children usually learn new words by including them in one category or another.
Picture dictionaries might be organised according to this criterion. Another interesting aspect about these categories is that most of them, if not all, do not have clear-cut boundaries.
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As a consequence, if different cultures have different judgements of degree of prototypicality for different reasons then translating literature for children would mean substituting a particular prototype of the SL with another prototype in the TL. An instance of domestication, this technique will help children form an idea of prototypes in their own culture or at older age just recognise the prototypes in their culture.
On the other hand, translators might choose to preserve the prototypes in the TL if their intention is to introduce the young readers to prototypes in other languages and cultures.
She considers that the outcome would be a peripheral position within the hierarchy of European synergy pierdere în greutate crystal lake recenzii.
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Moreover, in these countries translated literature would become the main source of innovation. If when she refers to limited resources Thomson-Wohlgemuth has in mind the economic resources then she is right in assuming that this would be a reason for the peripheral position in the literary polysystem.
When it comes to literary tradition and to translated literature as the main source of innovation. The example of the Romanian literature is eloquent in this respect. In the s there was a true invasion of translated literature in Romania and Kogălniceanu, one of the Romanian leading figures of the literary movement of the time warned Romanian writers against the danger of translating mediocre works of foreign writers to the detriment of their national productions.
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In his opinion, original autochthon literary works should exceed the number of translated books. Unfortunately, statistics in contemporary Romanian literature for children are again in favour of translations, especially from writers of English expression.
Aceste ecosisteme au o deosebita valoare economica, ecologica si stiintifica si pot fi atat de origine naturala cat si create de om, incluzand lacurile si mlastinile hipersaline, salternele marine, depozitele de sare si cele petroliere. Microorganismele halofile si halotolerante au capacitatea de a se dezvolta in aceste medii hipersaline, adaptandu-se la fluctuatiile presiunii osmotice externe si mentinand echilibrul osmotic intre citoplasma si mediul extracelular.
On the other hand, translated literature might assume a secondary position and in this situation it represents a peripheral system within the polysystem, it has 22 no major influence over the central system synergy pierdere în greutate crystal lake recenzii even becomes a conservative element, preserving conventional forms and conforming to the literary norms of the target system. However, translated literature itself is stratified ibidem: Some translated literature may be secondary while others, translated from major source literatures, are primary.
In addition, Even-Zohar ibidem: suggests that the position occupied by translated literature in the polysystem conditions the translation strategy.
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If it is primary, translators do not gnc natural burser burner de grăsime constrained to follow target literature models and are more prepared to break conventions. They thus often produce a TT that is a close match in terms of adequacy, reproducing the textual relations of the ST. This in itself may then lead to new SL models.
Irrespective of its primary or peripheral position, translated literature for children preserves its dynamic character requiring a continuous adjustment of the translation strategies in accordance with its integration in the literary polysystem. The situation described by Tabbert was in fact similar in other totalitarian regimes. She also suggests that the internal stratification of the.